This information is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to diagnosis, treat, cure, or prevent disease. Abnormal test values falling outside the Normal Range will be printed in bold and noted in the “Flag” column. Abnormal values should be reviewed by your primary physician and a copy of all testing should be included in your medical record for future reference and comparison. Contact Star Wellness if you have questions.
CMP – Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Extensive panel of 14 tests checking current status of your kidneys, liver, electrolytes, blood sugar & blood proteins.
Glucose – the most common form of sugar in the body. Blood levels of glucose are controlled by insulin, a hormone which is produced by the pancreas. Low glucose levels are usually seen in fasting and starvation states and are characterized by weakness, dizziness, nausea, and sweating. An abnormally high glucose level is indicative of diabetes, but can also be caused by other disorders and diseases. Symptoms associated with high glucose levels include urinating more frequently than normal, constant hunger, and an unquenchable thirst.
BUN( Blood Urea Nitrogen) – This metabolic by-product results from the breakdown of proteins and is normally eliminated by the kidneys. This test is an indirect measurement of kidney function, and high levels of BUN are found in kidney failure or severe dehydration.
Creatinine – a by-product of skeletal muscle metabolism that is eliminated by the kidneys and is a direct measure of kidney function. High values indicate chronic or acute kidney disease.
Sodium – in nature combines with chloride to form salt; in the body is essential for proper water balance, as well as nerve and muscle function. The level of water in the body is regulated through complex mechanisms which sense the sodium concentration in blood as it flows through the kidneys. High or low values of sodium may indicate kidney dysfunction or reflect dietary habits.
Potassium – is the major ion found within the body’s cells, and is essential for creating and maintaining electrical fields across cell membranes in muscle, nerve, and heart tissue which allow these organs to function properly. Low values often lead to muscle cramps (also called a “Charlie horse”), and extremely high values can be deadly.
Chloride – in nature this ion combines with sodium to form salt; in the body, chloride helps to control blood acidity and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles. Abnormal levels are found in kidney disease.
Carbon Dioxide, Total – Also known as bicarbonate or CO2. Carbon Dioxide is responsible for maintaining the blood acid-base (pH) balance within its normal range.
Calcium – Essential for the development and maintenance of bones and teeth, calcium also plays a vital role in muscle contraction and the heart. Abnormally high values may result from disorders of the parathyroid glands or bone diseases.
Protein, Total – this reflects an estimate of the total amount of albumin and other proteins found in the blood. Corresponds with the general nutritional state of the body.
Albumin – produced by the liver, albumin is the most numerous of the proteins found in blood and plays a large role in fluid balance within the bloodstream. Levels of albumin correspond to the general nutritional state of the body, and are also decreased in liver disease. Low levels of albumin may cause fluid retention in the soft tissues (edema).
Globulin – this test measures many types of different proteins that can be separated into alpha, beta, and gamma types. Some globulins are formed by the liver while others are formed by the immune system, such as antibodies or immunoglobulins. Globulins also perform many other functions such as binding with hemoglobin or transporting iron and other metal ions.
Albumin to Globulin (A/G) Ratio – abnormal values are used to help differentiate broad categories of potential disorders. For example, a decreased ratio indicates a rise in serum globulins produced by such diseases as multiple myeloma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or others. A larger than normal ratio resulting from increased albumin levels can indicate severe dehydration.
Bilirubin, Total – a brown-yellowish pigment found in bile which results from the metabolic breakdown of hemoglobin in the liver. Bilirubin gives stool its color. Elevated levels are characterized by jaundice and may indicate liver disease, blood disorders, or gallbladder dysfunction.
Alkaline Phosphatase – is an enzyme found in two main subtypes: one that is produced by the bones and the other which is produced by the liver. High levels are normally found in children whose bones are growing, but in adults the same levels may indicate liver disease.
AST (Asparagine Aminotransferase) – another enzyme found chiefly in the liver. Abnormally high levels of AST are found in liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatitis.
ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) – a specialized protein called an enzyme which is found mainly in the liver and the kidneys. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood, but when the liver is damaged ALT levels in the bloodstream rise. This test is a sensitive indicator of liver disease, especially damage caused by alcohol and other drugs.